Swimming pools, spas and their safety barriers
In Victoria, the design, construction and installation of swimming pools, spas and their safety barriers are subject to strict building requirements under the Building Regulations 2018 (the Regulations).
Any home-owner who engages in building a pool or spa and associated safety barriers must familiarise themselves with the Regulations.
Pool and spa owners have legal obligations to maintain their safety barriers at all times. Non-compliance, for any reason, can increase the risk of drowning and lead to prosecution.
Swimming pools and spas in Victoria must comply with the following requirements:
The VBA has created a swimming pools, spas and their safety barriers checklist to advise home-owners of their obligations, before, during and after construction.
Swimming pool and spa safety facts
- Swimming pools and spas holding 30cm of water or more must have a safety fence or barrier.
- Safety barriers must be a minimum of 1.2 metres high.
- Barrier gates must be self-closing and self-latching, and should never be propped open.
- Outdoor pools and spas built since 1 May 2010 must not have direct access to the pool area via a door from a building.
- Safety barriers should be clear of any object that children can use to climb into a pool or spa area.
- Inflatable pools holding 30cm of water or more have the same safety standards as all other pools and spas.
Swimming pool, spa and barrier building permits
A swimming pool or spa, and their associated safety barriers, can be constructed by a registered builder or by an owner-builder who has obtained a certificate of consent from the Victorian Building Authority.
A registered builder must be engaged under a written domestic building contract to carry out building work in excess of $10,000 (including labour and materials), and an owner-builder must obtain a certificate of consent for work in excess of $16,000.
A building permit, issued by a registered building surveyor, must be obtained to construct a pool or spa, as well as the associated safety barriers. You can apply for a building permit through your local council's municipal building surveyor or a private building surveyor.
A pool or spa building permit must include details of the safety barrier and be issued as one permit. One building permit is required for the pool or spa and its safety barriers, even if the builder engaged to construct or install the pool or spa is not going to also install the associated barriers.
Temporary inflatable pools or portable spas are exempt from requiring a permit each time they are erected. However, temporary inflatable pools or portable spas will still require a permanent compliant barrier for which a building permit is required.
A building permit is also required for installing and altering all swimming pool and spa safety barriers, including windows and gates that provide access to the pool or spa area.
The building permit must be issued by a registered building surveyor or either a municipal or private building surveyor. A municipal building surveyor can be engaged by making contact with your local council.
An application for a building permit must include details of the type and location of all barriers, including latches, catches, self-closing and self-latching devices, and fly screens.
Once the building work is completed, the "person in charge of the building work", as outlined in the building permit, must notify the relevant building surveyor who will do a final inspection of the completed swimming pool or spa and safety barriers.
The relevant building surveyor needs to be satisfied that the work has been built according to the building permit and the Regulations.
At the final inspection, the relevant building surveyor can ask for evidence of testing, or ask for tests to be done, to ensure the drainage system operates correctly, the barrier construction meets the structural design and that the gate operates properly.
Once your pool or spa is built, it should not be used until a permanent safety barrier is installed and a certificate of final inspection is obtained from the relevant building surveyor. This is the only way you can be assured that the pool/spa and safety barrier is compliant. If you don't comply, you risk the lives of family and friends, and you may also be committing a breach of the Building Act, which carries fines.
You can read more about the process of applying for a building permit for the construction of a swimming pool or spa in the About… swimming pools, spas and their safety barriers brochure.
Permanent safety barriers
Permanent safety barriers are required for:
- in-ground swimming pools and spas
- indoor swimming pools and spas
- above-ground pools and spas
- inflatable and relocatable pools, and
- hot tubs and jacuzzis capable of holding more than 300mm (30cm) of water.
Safety barriers are not required for structures not used principally for swimming, paddling or wading, including:
- bird baths
- fish ponds
- water supply/storage tanks
- baths used for personal hygiene and emptied after each use
- pools or spas not containing a depth of water greater than 300mm (30cm)
- inflatable swimming pools (typically toddler or wading pools) not containing a depth of water greater than 300mm (30cm), or
- spas inside a building used for personal hygiene (a spa bath in a bathroom that is emptied after each use).
Australian Standard (AS) 1926.1 outlines the requirements for the design and construction of a safety barrier.
- The height of the barrier should not be less than 1200mm (1.2 metres)
- Where a boundary fence acts as a safety barrier to the pool, it should not be less than 1800mm (1.8 metres).
- The safety barrier, and the area around it, should be free from handholds or footholds, climbable objects or plants that can be used to gain access to the pool area.
- Where a boundary fence acts as a barrier to a pool, it shall have a non-climbable zone formed as a quadrant of 900mm radius down from the top of the inside of the barrier.
- The height of any opening between the bottom of the barrier and ground level should not exceed 100mm. Gaps in a safety fence should also not exceed 100mm.
- The barrier should be made from durable material such as timber, steel or glass.
- Gates must swing outwards from the swimming pool or spa area and be fitted with self-closing and self-latching devices that will prevent the gate from being reopened or being reached from outside the barrier by young children.
- Walls of a building can be considered part of the safety barrier, as long as any windows that open onto the pool area are fitted with child resistant metal screens or bars that are fixed to the building or the window and can only be opened a maximum of 100mm.
- For above ground pools and spas, including inflatable pools, the walls of the pool can be considered an effective barrier, if at least 1200mm (1.2 metres) high, and as long as climbable objects, such as ladders or filtration systems, are not left near or built against the pool. If they are, the pool or spa will require a compliant barrier.
Since 1 May 2010, all outdoor swimming pools and spas must not have direct access to the pool area via a door from a building, such as a house or a garage.
All swimming pools and spas constructed, or for which a building approval or building permit was issued, on or after April 1991 and before 1 May 2010, must be fitted with a child-resistant door that will form part of the continuous safety barrier and is self-latching and self-closing.
In the case of screen doors, it is recommended that these be of solid construction with securely fitted fly wire.
The door must be kept closed and latched or locked at all times, except when the person is in the act of entering or leaving the pool area.
All swimming pools or spas constructed prior to 8 April 1991, or where a building approval was obtained before this date, must have safety barriers complying with Part 9 Division 1 of the Regulations. Check with a registered building surveyor if your safety barriers are compliant.
If you are replacing an existing safety barrier with a new barrier for a swimming pool or spa built before 1 May 2010, you will need to comply with the current Regulations. This work will require a building permit. Check with a registered building surveyor for further advice.
Site safety pool barriers
During construction, if the pool is filled with more than 300mm (30cm) of water, it is categorised as a functioning pool and must have a safety barrier placed around it.
A site safety barrier can be in place until a permanent barrier is installed, but it must meet all safety requirements at all times.
A site safety barrier should be installed, if any one or more of the following circumstances applies:
- The pool is prefabricated and filled on installation (for example, a fibreglass pool).
- The pool is in-ground and not self-draining.
- If the pool won't be maintained during construction (rainwater can accumulate in the bottom)
- The pool is in-ground and needs to be filled on installation (for example, vinyl-lined pools).
- The property where the pool is being built includes a dwelling that is occupied.
A site safety barrier should be made from sturdy, weather-resistant material and meet the minimum requirements of Australian Standard AS 1926.1 immediately after the pool is filled. (Refer to Practice Note 2018-05 for more information.)
Maintaining the site safety barrier during construction depends on who (if anyone) is living at the property, and who is responsible for the building site. Where a builder has been engaged to construct the pool or spa and its barrier, the builder is generally responsible for maintaining the safety barrier while they are on-site, or if the property is vacant. Ensure this is agreed and contained in the relevant building contract. If the property owner is living on-site, they are responsible for maintaining the safety barrier when the builder is not on-site.
Where the pool or spa and its barrier is being constructed by an owner-builder, the owner-builder is the person responsible for the work and site safety at all times. They must install and maintain the site safety barrier until the permanent barrier is installed, and the building surveyor has issued a certificate of final inspection. An owner-builder will be designated in the building permit as the “person in charge of building work”.
Safety barrier maintenance
As the owner and/or occupier of a home, you are responsible for taking all reasonable steps to ensure that any swimming pool or spa safety fence or barrier is regularly maintained and operating effectively. Below are some useful tips for maintaining safety barriers.
- Promptly repair any faults in gates, doors (where permitted at time of construction) and windows, such as self-closers, latches, flyscreens, catches and bolts, by repairing as required to keep in good working condition.
- Make sure there are no chairs, boxes, pool pumps, tree branches, pot plants or other items close to the barrier that could be used to climb the safety barrier in order to gain access to the pool or spa area.
- Make sure any fences (especially timber paling fences) are in good condition, non-climbable and have no gaps larger than 100mm.
- Ensure all gates or doors (where permitted at time of construction) that provide access to the swimming pool or spa area are closed at all times, except when entering or leaving the area.
- Where applicable, make sure that the neighbours' properties adjoining your swimming pool or spa area have no potential hazards or climbable objects.
It is recommended that you have your pool and spa safety barriers inspected by a registered building surveyor or registered building inspector every three years, to ensure that the barriers comply with the Regulations and do not pose a safety risk to your friends or family.
Frequently asked questions
1. If I have an above ground swimming pool or spa, do I need a safety barrier?
The walls of an above ground swimming pool or spa provide a barrier if they are at least 1.2 metres in height and do not have a surface that allows a child to gain a foothold and climb into the swimming pool or spa.
Any objects that could be climbable by a young child, such as a permanent pool ladder, pool filter and pump equipment, should be properly fenced.
2. I have recently purchased a house where there is no safety barrier around the swimming pool or spa. Whose responsibility is it to install a fence?
As the new owner you are responsible for ensuring that the safety barrier is provided. If you own, or are purchasing a home with a swimming pool or spa, and are not sure if the swimming pool or spa safety barrier complies, check with a private or local council building surveyor.
3. I am renting a house where there is no safety barrier around the swimming pool or spa. Whose responsibility is it to install a fence?
It is the home-owner's responsibility to install the safety barrier. Make contact with your real estate agent to request that a safety barrier be installed as a matter of urgency. Do not use the pool until the safety barrier has been installed and you have received proof from the real estate agent that a building permit has been issued and the certificate of final inspection has been provided to the home-owner.
4. I have recently purchased a temporary inflatable swimming pool. Does it require a building permit and a safety barrier?
The construction or installation of temporary or inflatable pools and spas does not require a building permit. However, if they hold more than 30cm of water, they must have appropriate safety barriers and you must obtain a building permit before the construction or installation of the safety barrier can occur. The temporary or inflatable pool or spa should not be used until the safety barrier has been installed and a certificate of final inspection has been issued by the relevant building surveyor.
Temporary or inflatable pools and spas containing less than 30cm of water do not require a building permit or a safety barrier.
5. I am installing a new pool or spa and have decided to engage separate swimming pool and safety barrier installers. Whose responsibility is it to install and maintain the temporary safety barrier during construction?
The issue of who installs and maintains the safety barrier during construction depends on who (if anyone) is on-site and who has responsibility for the building work. If you are living on-site and have engaged a builder to construct the pool, then they will have responsibility for installing the temporary safety barrier and maintaining the barrier while they are on-site. You will have responsibility for maintaining the barrier when the builder is off-site. Discuss this with your builder, so that you are both clear on your responsibilities, and request a clause to be included in the building contract.
In the case of owner-builders, they are responsible for installing and maintaining the temporary barrier at all times until the permanent barrier is installed, as they are the "person in charge of building work" as outlined in the building permit.
6. What if I am engaging a builder and they ask me to be an owner-builder?
Be wary if a builder asks you to sign an application for a building permit as an owner-builder, even though they will be doing the work. Telling the building surveyor that you intend to be the owner-builder when you have in fact engaged a builder is false and misleading, and may expose you to offences and significant risks, including the work not being covered by domestic building insurance or being carried out by a builder who may not be registered and competent to do the work.
7. Can I have a door leading from my dwelling into the pool?
No. For safety barriers installed from 1 May 2010, direct access from any building into an outdoor pool area is not permitted.
8. I have recently installed a cover over my swimming pool or spa. Does it comply with the legislation as a safety barrier?
No. The placing of a cover or lid over the swimming pool or spa does not meet safety barrier regulations. You are required by law to provide a permanent safety barrier.
9. How do I know if the barrier around my swimming pool or spa complies with the law?
Either a private or local council building surveyor, or a registered building inspector, can provide you with further written details of what is required for compliance, usually on a fee-for-service basis.
10. A person claiming to be a building surveyor or inspector has recently visited my home requesting to inspect my pool or spa. Am I required to provide him with access to my home?
Home-owners are legally required to comply with the Regulations and standards for swimming pools and spas, including following the building permit process and obtaining a certificate of final inspection from a registered building surveyor at the end of construction. Home-owners also have an ongoing obligation under the Regulations to maintain their pool or spa safety barriers so that they operate effectively at all times.
To confirm that the swimming pool or spa and associated safety barriers are compliant, and that the correct building permit process has been followed, a municipal building surveyor, or a VBA building inspector, may request access to your property. You should be given notice of the inspection and/or asked to give consent to allow access. It is recommended that you allow access so that an inspection can occur and any safety issues can be resolved. If you choose not to allow access, the council or VBA may seek a warrant from a Court to allow them to enter without your consent. Request to see the officer's identification and, if you have any concerns, contact your local council or the VBA on 1300 815 127 to confirm their identity.
11. What are the penalties for non-compliance?
The Building Act 1993 (the Act) and the Regulations prescribe substantial fines that can be imposed on an owner or occupier who fails to comply with the swimming pool or spa regulations. Local councils are responsible for enforcing the Regulations and can issue on-the-spot fines for certain breaches. The VBA can also prosecute for breaches of the swimming pool and spa regulations.
An example of non-compliance may be a failure to install self-closing or self-latching devices, or a failure to maintain your swimming pool or spa barrier so that it operates effectively at all times.